INTRODUCTION to GNPDA1 (G10007)
INTRODUCTION to GNPDA1
GNPDA1, also known as Glucosamine-6-phosphate Deaminase 1, is a drug target and biomarker that has gained significant attention in recent years. In this article, we will delve into the various aspects of GNPDA1, including its structure, function, role in diseases, its potential as a drug target, and its significance as a biomarker.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
GNPDA1 is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and amino sugars. It is primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells and is widely expressed in various tissues throughout the body.
The structure of GNPDA1 consists of a single polypeptide chain consisting of approximately 480 amino acids. It adopts an 伪/尾 fold and forms a homodimer, with each monomer containing two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain is responsible for the catalytic activity of the enzyme, while the C-terminal domain is involved in the regulation of its function.
The function of GNPDA1 lies in its ability to catalyze the deamination of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) to fructose-6-phosphate (Fru6P) and ammonia. This enzymatic activity is a crucial step in the biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a molecule that serves as a precursor for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids, and glycoproteins.
ROLE IN DISEASES
Research has shown that alterations in GNPDA1 expression and activity have significant implications in various disease processes. One notable example is its involvement in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Studies have found that increased GNPDA1 activity leads to suppressed insulin signaling pathways, ultimately impairing glucose metabolism and contributing to insulin resistance.
Furthermore, GNPDA1 has been linked to some types of cancer. High expression levels of GNPDA1 have been observed in several cancer types, including breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer. It is believed that GNPDA1 promotes cancer cell growth and survival by increasing glucose metabolism and facilitating the production of macromolecules needed for rapid proliferation.
POTENTIAL AS A DRUG TARGET
Given its involvement in various disease processes, GNPDA1 has emerged as a potential target for drug development. Several studies have explored the idea of inhibiting GNPDA1 as a strategy to combat insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. By blocking GNPDA1 activity, it may be possible to restore normal insulin signaling and improve glucose metabolism.
In the context of cancer, targeting GNPDA1 could be a promising approach to inhibit tumor growth. Preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of GNPDA1 suppresses cancer cell proliferation and induces cell death. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to develop selective inhibitors that can effectively target GNPDA1 without causing significant side effects.
SIGNIFICANCE AS A BIOMARKER
GNPDA1 also holds significance as a biomarker, particularly in cancers. Elevated expression levels of GNPDA1 have been found in tumor tissues compared to healthy tissues, making it a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker. Its overexpression has been associated with more aggressive tumor characteristics and poorer patient outcomes.
In addition to cancer, GNPDA1 expression may also serve as a biomarker in other diseases such as diabetes. Monitoring GNPDA1 levels in patients could provide insights into disease progression and response to treatment.
In conclusion, GNPDA1 is a drug target and biomarker that has garnered attention due to its involvement in various disease processes. Its role in glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and cancer make it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Additionally, its expression levels hold promise as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Further research and development efforts are warranted to fully exploit the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of GNPDA1 in improving human health.
Protein Name: Glucosamine-6-phosphate Deaminase 1
Functions: Catalyzes the reversible conversion of alpha-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcN-6P) into beta-D-fructose 6-phosphate (Fru-6P) and ammonium ion, a regulatory reaction step in de novo uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis via hexosamine pathway. Deamination is coupled to aldo-keto isomerization mediating the metabolic flux from UDP-GlcNAc toward Fru-6P. At high ammonium level can drive amination and isomerization of Fru-6P toward hexosamines and UDP-GlcNAc synthesis (PubMed:21807125, PubMed:26887390). Has a role in fine tuning the metabolic fluctuations of cytosolic UDP-GlcNAc and their effects on hyaluronan synthesis that occur during tissue remodeling (PubMed:26887390). Seems to trigger calcium oscillations in mammalian eggs. These oscillations serve as the essential trigger for egg activation and early development of the embryo (By similarity)
More Common Targets
GOLGA6L3P | GOLGA8DP | GOLGA8F | GOLGA8R | GOLGA8UP | GON4L | GPC1-AS1 | GPC5-AS1 | GPC5-AS2 | GPC6 | GPC6-AS1 | GPC6-AS2 | GPHA2 | GPN2 | GPR156 | GPR158-AS1 | GPR173 | GPR180 | GPR183 | GPR62 | GPR75-ASB3 | GPR84 | GPR85 | GPR87 | GPR88 | GPRC5D-AS1 | GRAMD1C | GRAMD2A | GRAMD4P2 | GRAMD4P5 | GRAMD4P7 | GREM1-AS1 | GRIK1-AS2 | GRM5-AS1 | GRTP1-AS1 | GS1-24F4.2 | GS1-600G8.3 | GSAP | GSDME | GSTM5P1 | GSTO2 | GSX2 | GTF2IP4 | GTF3AP5 | GTF3C2-AS1 | GTPBP2 | GUCY2D | GUSBP17 | GVQW3 | GXYLT1P3 | GXYLT1P4 | GXYLT1P6 | GZMA | GZMB | GZMK | GZMM | H1-0 | H1-1 | H1-2 | H1-3 | H1-4 | H1-5 | H1-6 | H2AC7 | H2AX | H2AZ1 | H2BC12L | H2BC3 | H2BC5 | H3-3A | H3-3B | H3P36 | HABP2 | HADH | HADHA | HADHAP1 | HADHB | HAGH | HAL | HAO1 | HAO2-IT1 | HARS1 | HAS1 | HAS2 | HAS3 | HAUS6 | HAVCR1P1 | HAX1P1 | HBA1 | HBA2 | HBAP1 | HBB | HBBP1 | HBD | HBE1 | HBEGF | HBG1 | HBG2 | HBM | HBQ1